2014 California Rules of Court

Rule 4.700. Firearm relinquishment procedures for criminal protective orders

(a) Application of rule

This rule applies when a court issues a criminal protective order under Penal Code section 136.2 during a criminal case or as a condition of probation under Penal Code section 1203.097(a)(2) against a defendant charged with a crime of domestic violence as defined in Penal Code section 13700.

(b) Purpose

This rule is intended to:

(1)Assist courts issuing criminal protective orders to determine whether a defendant subject to such an order owns, possesses, or controls any firearms; and

(2)Assist courts that have issued criminal protective orders to determine whether a defendant has complied with the court's order to relinquish or sell the firearms under Code of Civil Procedure section 527.9.

(c) Setting review hearing

(1)At any hearing where the court issues a criminal protective order, the court must consider all credible information, including information provided on behalf of the defendant, to determine if there is good cause to believe that the defendant has a firearm within his or her immediate possession or control.

(2)If the court finds good cause to believe that the defendant has a firearm within his or her immediate possession or control, the court must set a review hearing to ascertain whether the defendant has complied with the requirement to relinquish the firearm as specified in Code of Civil Procedure section 527.9. Unless the defendant is in custody at the time, the review hearing should occur within two court days after issuance of the criminal protective order. If circumstances warrant, the court may extend the review hearing to occur within 5 court days after issuance of the criminal protective order. The court must give the defendant an opportunity to present information at the review hearing to refute the allegation that he or she owns any firearms. If the defendant is in custody at the time the criminal protective order is issued, the court should order the defendant to appear for a review hearing within two court days after the defendant's release from custody.

(3)If the proceeding is held under Penal Code section 136.2, the court may, under Penal Code section 977(a)(2), order the defendant to personally appear at the review hearing. If the proceeding is held under Penal Code section 1203.097, the court should order the defendant to personally appear.

(d) Review hearing

(1)If the court has issued a criminal protective order under Penal Code section 136.2, at the review hearing:

(A)If the court finds that the defendant has a firearm in or subject to his or her immediate possession or control, the court must consider whether bail, as set, or defendant's release on own recognizance is appropriate.

(B)If the defendant does not appear at the hearing and the court orders that bail be revoked, the court should issue a bench warrant.

(2)If the criminal protective order is issued as a condition of probation under Penal Code section 1203.097, and the court finds at the review hearing that the defendant has a firearm in or subject to his or her immediate possession or control, the court must proceed under Penal Code section 1203.097(a)(12).

(3)In any review hearing to determine whether a defendant has complied with the requirement to relinquish firearms as specified in Code of Civil Procedure section 527.9, the burden of proof is on the prosecution.

Rule 4.700 adopted effective July 1, 2010.

Advisory Committee Comment

When issuing a criminal protective order under Penal Code section 136.2 or 1203.097(a)(2), the court is required to order a defendant "to relinquish any firearm in that person's immediate possession or control, or subject to that person's immediate possession or control . . . ." (Code Civ. Proc., § 527.9(b).) Mandatory Judicial Council form CR-160, Criminal Protective Order-Domestic Violence, includes a mandatory order in bold type that the defendant "must surrender to local law enforcement or sell to a licensed gun dealer any firearm owned or subject to his or her immediate possession or control within 24 hours after service of this order and must file a receipt with the court showing compliance with this order within 48 hours of receiving this order."

Courts are encouraged to develop local procedures to calendar review hearings for defendants in custody beyond the two-court-day time frame to file proof of firearms relinquishment with the court under Code of Civil Procedure section 527.9.

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