This lesson is designed to integrate what the students have learned concerning the Articles of Confederation, The Constitutional Convention, The three branches of government and the approval of the Bill of Rights. Specifically, this lesson focuses on the standards by examining how the Constitution became the foundation of the government of the United States. They will also learn the key democratic principles in the Constitution.
Students will be able to:
Students describe the people and events associated with the development of the U.S. Constitution and analyze the Constitution’s significance as the foundation of the American republic.
1. List the shortcomings of the Articles of Confederation as set forth by their critics.
2. Explain the significance of the new Constitution of 1787, including the struggles over its ratification and the reasons for the addition of the Bill of Rights.
3. Understand the fundamental principles of American constitutional democracy, including how the government derives its power from the people and the primacy of individual liberty.
4. Understand how the Constitution is designed to secure our liberty by both empowering and limiting central government and compare the powers granted to citizens, Congress, the president, and the Supreme Court with those reserved to the states.
English Language Arts
Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
2.3 Discern main ideas and concepts presented in texts, identifying and assessing evidence that supports those ideas.
2.4 Draw inferences, conclusions, or generalizations about text and support them with textual evidence and prior knowledge
1.2 Create multiple-paragraph expository compositions: a. Establish a topic, important ideas, or events in sequence or chronological order. b. Provide details and transitional expressions that link one paragraph to another in a clear line of thought. c. Offer a concluding paragraph that summarizes important ideas and details.
Research and Technology
1.3 Use organizational features of printed text (e.g., citations, end notes, bibliographic references) to locate relevant information.
1.4 Create simple documents by using electronic media and employing organizational features (e.g., passwords, entry and pull-down menus, word searches, a thesaurus, spell checks).
2.3 Write research reports about important ideas, issues, or events by using the following guidelines: a. Frame questions that direct the investigation. b. Establish a controlling idea or topic. c. Develop the topic with simple facts, details, examples, and explanations.
1.0 Listening and Speaking Strategies
Organization and Delivery of Oral Communication
1.4 Select a focus, organizational structure, and point of view for an oral presentation.
1.5 Clarify and support spoken ideas with evidence and examples.
1.6 Engage the audience with appropriate verbal cues, facial expressions, and gestures.
2.0 Speaking Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)
2.2 Deliver informative presentations about an important idea, issue, or event by the follow-ing means: a. Frame questions to direct the investigation. b. Establish a controlling idea or topic. c. Develop the topic with simple facts, details, examples, and explanations.
2.3 Deliver oral responses to literature:
a. Summarize significant events and details.
b. Articulate an understanding of several ideas or images communicated by the literary work.
c. Use examples or textual evidence from the work to support conclusions
Visual and Performing Arts Content Standards
2.2 Demonstrate the use of blocking (stage areas, levels, and actor's position, such as full front, quarter, profile, and full back) in dramatizations.
3.1 Select or create appropriate props, sets, and costumes for a cultural celebration or pageant
Connections and Applications
5.1 Use theatrical skills to dramatize events and concepts from other curriculum areas, such as reenacting the signing of the Declaration of Independence in history social science.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
7. Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.*
College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Reading K-5
Key Ideas and Details
1. Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.
2. Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas.
3. Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.
Craft and Structure
4. Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.
Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
10. Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.
The political process involves participation; understanding requires student engagement.
The strength of a democracy is equal to the strength of its citizens. (We must understand, participate in, and further develop our system of government to ensure democracy).
E Pluribus Unum: out of many, one. (From a variety of sources and experiences, we have developed a successful government and legal system).
How is the Constitution a living document?
Is citizenship a right or a responsibility?
Higher Order Thinking Questions:
What were the shortcomings of the Articles of Confederation and why did some leaders want to change the articles? (Evaluation)
Why do you think the Constitution and the Bill of Rights were written? (Evaluation)
What kind of person wrote the Constitution and the Bill Of Rights? (Analysis, Evaluation)
Did the Constitution create a stronger central government? Explain (Evaluation)
How are the Constitution and The Bill of Rights living documents? (Analysis)
Students will be evaluated through informal checks for understanding, teacher observation, self-reflections, and performing an authentic task (GRASP) evaluated by a rubric.
Activity Steps: This lesson should be completed over a 2-week period per teacher discretion and student need.
|“Have you ever made up rules for a game and then found when playing, that the rules did not work well.
What kinds of problems did you have and what did you do to fix the problems
Did players disagree about how to fix or change the rules?
How were disagreements settled?"
|Attend to a formal introduction.
Take notes as needed
Review Articles of Confederation
|Review the Articles of Confederation.
Discuss the shortcomings of the Articles.
Discuss the Annapolis Convention and Shays’s Rebellion.
Discus the Constitutional Convention and the Participants
Discuss the Debates and the Compromises at the Convention
Discuss the purpose of the Constitution as stated in the Preamble
Compare the powers and functions of three branches of government
Discuss the struggle to get the Bill of Rights approved and explain the key rights that were guaranteed in the Bill of Rights
| Take notes as needed.
Students use history/social science text and/or other documents provided on the Articles and the Conventions, check and correct as a class for understanding
1- 2 weeks class time
|Simulation of Constitutional situations that require action by branch (es)
Apply knowledge about the Bill of Rights to a shield that depicts a few illustrations of these rights
Create a Hall of Fame that honors the constitution, the people and the events and ideas that were important to history.
|Student teams will use constitutional power cards that decide governmental actions. Some situations will require the students to place the power cards in a proper sequence that the government would act.
1 minute oral presentation of their character highlights
Come in Costume with props as needed and complete self reflection
Create Tableaus of an amendment in the Bill of Rights and perform in front of class
Reflect on the group process
Next steps include:
Lessons discussing a Constitutional democracy
Next steps include:
Compare the powers granted to citizens, to the three branches of the federal government and to the states
Special Needs of students are considered in this lesson:
Students are put into flexible grouping scenarios that will benefit learning for all types of learners and special needs. Hands-on learning with plenty of opportunities for movement, verbal, written, and nonverbal expression, and multiple learning modalities are available within the context of this lesson.
This lesson may be repeated with different amendments and or articles from the constitution. Students may want to investigate current events that could lead to amendments. Film the tableau’s and use music, (after practicing with the technology and guidance with the use of music and props). Skits could be performed in the place of tableau with structure provided.
Materials and Resources Needed:
History Social Science text, Internet access, wipe boards, project planner, additional classroom resources, paper, costumes, and props.
We The Kids: The Preamble to the Constitution of the United States, David Catrow
A Kids’ Guide to America’s Bill of Rights, Kathleen Krull
Shh! We're Writing the Constitution, Jean Fritz
. . .If You Were There When They Signed the Constitution , Elizabeth Levy
A More Perfect Union,The Story of Our Constitution, Betsy Maestro
DVD: Founding of our Federal Government
Context of the unit:
This unit is designed to focus on the history social science standards in 5.7.1 - 5.7. These focus on the constitution as the basis for our American republic. The students will learn how the United States Constitution came to be written and how it defines the national government. Students have learned the steps involved in the creation of “tableau” in previous studies.
Context of the lesson:
This lesson would be the conclusion of the unit. Students will have covered the Declaration of Independence and the end of the Revolutionary War and a review of how the new nation would organize government, which included writing state constitutions.